Documentos de Génova
O presente sítio tem por objectivo apresentar, de forma organizada, alguns documentos relativos à naturalidade, identificação e percurso social de Cristóvão Colombo, descobridor da América ao serviço dos Reis Católicos em 1492. Por documentos, entende-se transcrições integrais de documentos da época de Cristóvão Colombo, transcrições parciais de outros documentos, notícias, ensaios, etc. A criação deste sítio enquadra-se num ressurgimento do interesse no tema ocasionado pela recente comemoração do 5º centenário da morte do descobridor (1506-2006).
A informação aqui depositada está agrupada da seguinte forma:
Colombo e família nos documentos notariais de Génova
Atenuando o confusionismo persistente
Genoveses em Portugal
Referências à naturalidade e identificação de Colombo
Testamentos de Colombo
Historie di Christoforo Colombo
Percurso social de Colombo
Línguas utilizadas por Colombo
Estudos forenses e de ADN
Os conhecimentos de Colombo
|Taviani, sobre os documentos notarias de Génova|
Colombo e família nos notários de Génova e Savona 24-11-2006, 12:18
Autor: coelho [responder para o fórum]
coloco aqui um sumário da autoria de P.E.Taviani (1991) sobre a documentação notarial de Génova e Savona com interesse para o estudo das origens de Colombo.
Even more important and definitive are the public and notarial acts--original copies of which are conserved in the archives of Genoa and Savona--regarding Columbus's father, Columbus himself, his grandfather, and his relatives. There are many such documents--more than a hundred--but it will suffice to mention only the most important ones.
An act dated 21 February 1429 talks about a Giovanni Colombo, originally from Moconesi, a village in upper Fontanabuona, who lives in Quinto. It is a contract in which Giovanni Colombo apprentices his son Domenico, who was about eleven years old at the time, to Guglielmo di Brabante, a cloth weaver, for six years. The act was drawn up in Santo Stefano in Genoa by the notary Quirico di Albenga.
From an act dated 6 September 1440, we can see that Giovanni is still living; from one dated 21 January 1444, we can that he is already dead.
We know much more about the life of his father, Domenico. We have seen how at the age of eleven, he entered as a "famulus et discipulus" into a shop of a certain Guglielmo de Brabante, a German "textori pannorum lane," in Genoa. Ten years later, in 1439, he was already a master craftsman. From 1439 to 1447, Domenico practiced his trade in Genoa and took part in the disputes between the factions. The feud between the Adorno and Fregoso parties was sharp in those years. A contemporary historian, the famous Giustiniani, writes that in 1447,
On the fourth of January Barnaba Adorno was elected Doge, and it was all a plot by the Adorno faction. But the Barnaba Signory was very short-lived, because on January 30 Giano da Campo Fregoso, who had already given great annoyance to the Adorno faction for four years in a row, tried his chances. Doge Barnaba Adorno had a great number of soldiers, including six-hundred special fighters, who had been sent to him by King Alphonse of Aragon. Giano came by night with a single galley, entered the city and assaulted the ducal palace with eighty-five strong companions. There was a hearty resistance to him, a cruel battle, such that all of Giano's men were wounded, and nonetheless the ability and constance of Giano was such that he emerged the victor and conquered the Doge's position. (editor's translation)
It is improbable that Domenico Colombo, the woolen-weaver, was one of the eighty-five strong companions. However, he was one of the many who from within the city walls took the part of the Fregosos. And he must have been rather influential, even if he was just a party member; he must have been, as we would say in modern terms, an activist. He was certainly loyal, steadfast, and of proven faith, because on 4 February, five days later, the new doge named him ad custodiam turris et porte Olivelle dilectum suum Dominicum de Colombo.
According to custom, the job of warden of the gate lasted thirteen months. On 5 November 1448 the Olivella tower was no longer entrusted to Domenico Colombo. Before that, on 20 April of the same year, he and his brother Antonio were cited in a document as habitatores ville Quinti potestacie Bisannis. In the meantime, in December, Gianio died. Historians testify that he was a good government, while the same cannot be said about his successor, Gianio's brother Ludovico, who was deposed by the senate in the summer of 1450 and replaced by his nephew Pietro Fregoso.
Pietro Fregoso had been named general captain of the city on 3 February 1447, the day before Domenico Colombo's appointment. In all probability the latter appointment had been suggested to Doge Giano by Pietro. Now that Pietro was doge, he once again entrusted custody of the Olivello gate to Domenico on 1 October 1450. It would seem that Domenico now lived comfortably, since he was investing money--librarum quinquaginta Janue--in the purchase of land in Quarto, which he leased back to the seller the same day.
We have reached 1451, Columbus's probable year of birth. Domenico was evidently already married. The first certificate in which the name of his wife, Susanna Fontanarossa, appears is dated 15 May 1471. From 1452 to 1455, Domenico Colombo had always resided in Genoa, and with all probability, in his house on Vico Olivella, which he still had neither sold nor leased. He might have spent some time in Quinto, where his brother Antonio is supposed to have resided; Antonio, older than Domenico and also born Moconesi, was less entrepreneurial.
In 1455 Domenico went to live in a house in Vico Diritto. The same building contained both his dwelling and his shop textor pannorum lane. Eleven years later, on 17 January 1466, a bill of sale, to which Domenico was witness, was drawn up: Janue extra portam S. Andree, in apotheca dicti Dominici de Columbo.
In February 1470 he was no longer in Genoa. For the first time we find him in Savona, where he practiced the trades of weaver and tavern-keeper. Six months later he was back in Genoa with his son Christopher to appear in court, as attested to by a document; this is the oldest document (22 September 1470) naming the navigator. On that same day, Domenico was arrested, only to be released a hours later by a criminal judge who declared that he did not find him culpabilem. The reasons for the arrest and for the trip to Genoa were the same: a legal question of a debt that Domenico and his son Christopher owed to certain Girolamo del Porto. With a document dated 28 September 1470, the judge imposed a fine of 35 lira on Domenico. In order to raise that sum, he sold to a Caprile family some lands "in Ginesttreto, potestacie Bisannis." These were the dowry of his wife, Susanna Fontanarossa, and at the point of sale her brother, Guagnino, claimed his right of preemption over the same lands. But Susanna ratified her husbands sale: Domenico was now habitator Saone.
In a document of the Savona wooliers guild dated 12 March 1473, we find the name Domenico Colombo once more. On 24 September of the same year, he sold his house on via dell'Olivella in Genoa. At the beginning of 1477, when he had already bought land with a house in Legino, near Savona, he also sold his house in Vico Diritti, in the Sant'Andrea district.
On 17 August 1481 he leased his house in Legino in order to return to Genoa. In a document dated 27 January 1483, he is cited as an olim textor pannorum. He was sixty-five. His wife was probably dead. Of his sons, none had remained by his side. Giovanni Pellegrino, his second son, must have died young. Christopher and Bartolomeo were in Lisbon. Giacomo was also far from home. His daughter Bianchinetta was about to get married to a certain Giacomo Bavarello, son of a cheese-maker, who would take his father-in-law's place at the house in Vico Diritto, outside of Porta Sant-Andrea. On 17 November 1491, Domenico was in Savona, where he received a sum of money from a debtor. In 1494, on 30 September, he acted as a witness for a notarized document drawn in Genoa. At the beginning of the new century he was already dead, it having been written in a notarized document that his sons were "quondam Dominci."
A long life, that of Christopher Columbus's father. A good seventy-seven notarial acts name Domenico Colombo. His brother, who lived in Quinto, appears in only nine. This difference highlights just how eventful the life of Christopher's father was. He was the warden of a city gate, a weaver and tavern- keeper, and an active participant in politics; A territory that has always been dangerous, and was particularly so in fifteenth- century Genoa.
Therefore, Christopher Columbus was definitely from a Ligurian family. His great-grandfather lived in Moconesi. His grandfather, Giovanni, was definitely born in Moconesi. His father, Domenico, was born in Quinto. He lived for a long period in Genoa, and then Savona. Today, Quinto is part of Genoa's urban complex, but then it was a village a short way from the city. Christopher Columbus spent his childhood and the first years of his youth in Vico Diritti, under the gate of Sant'Andrea. These are historically certain facts.
When amd more precisely where, was Columbus born? Based on the documents which are certainly authentic, the date of his birth is usually set between 25 August and 31 October 1451. In a document dated 31 October 1470, Columbus declares himself maior annis decemnovem; in the other, dated 25 August 1479, which will be discussed in detail below, he declares himself annorum vigintiseptum vel circa. Between 25 August and 31 October 1451, Domenico Colombo, Christopher's father, was the keeper of the Olivella gate, and thus lived next to the gate itself. This, therefore, is where Christopher would have been born.
The reasoning is flawless. However, how can we be sure that Columbus's declarations were exact? Any one of us might make a mistake when asked our age. And how do you count the years? If he was born in 1451, Columbus could have said that he was twenty-eight in August 1479, because he was in the twenty-eight year of his life. He could just as correctly have said twenty-seven, because he still had not celebrated his twenty-eighth birthday. Then, add the vel circa in the second document: i.e. 25 August 1479 he was about twenty-seven years old. All this would induce one to think that Columbus was born around 1451, but it is risky to fix the date exactly within the space of two months.
Around 1451: thus, a date included in the three-year period 1450-1452. In these three years Domenico was either in the center of Genoa, the warden of the Olivella gate in the Portoria neighborhood, or in Quinto. Domenico Colombo moved to Savona twenty years later, in 1470. Thus there are only two alternatives for his son's birthplace: Genoa (Porta dell'Olivella) or Quinto. Without a doubt, we can exclude other claims for his birthplace being in the Genoa area, but far from the city itself: claims from places such as Cogoleto, Bettola, Savona, and Calvi di Corcica.
Although many historians tend toward the Olivella gate, one cannot exclude Quinto, where Columbus's father, Domenico, had his home and where his mother, Susanna Fontanarossa, could have given birth amidst fresh and tranquil surroundings, with the assistance of the women from her husband's family. Until the beginning of the present century, it was customary among families who had immigrated to Genoa from the countryside for pregnant women to return to their relatives in the country to give birth.
The Quinto hypothesis could also solve the mystery of the epithet "da Terrarubia" which the admiral and his brother Bartolomea gave themselves at times. Quinto is, in effect, a place that was called Terrarosa until the beginning of the century. Moreover, a Terrarossa still exists today in the township of Moconesi, a birthplace of the grandfather, Giovanni.
Another doubt remains to be settled: can we be sure that all of the documents cited concern the Christopher Columbus who was later to become Cristobal Colon, admiral of the Ocean Sea in Spanish territory? The list of contemporary historians and ambassadors unanimous in the belief that Columbus was Genoese could suffice as proof, but there is something more. The documents reveal this other information. One of them has already been cited: the document dated September in which the criminal judge convicts Domenico Columbus. The conviction is tied to the debt of Domenico--together with his son Christopher (explicitly stated in the document)--toward a certain Girolamo del Porto.
In the will dictated by Admiral Cristobal Colon in Valladolid before he died, the authentic and indisputable document of which we have today, the dying navigator remembers this old debt, which had evidently not been paid. Still more important is the act drawn in Genoa on 25 August 1479 by a notary, Girolamo Ventimiglia (series 2a, 1474-1504, n. 266). This act is known as the assereto document, after the scholar who found it in the State Archives in Genoa in 1904. Following is the part in which Columbus is cited:
presence of the venerable Office of Merchandise,
says and states that which he will or hopes or doubts
to have with Paola Di Negro, son of the late Luca, he
himself or his brother Cazona with the aforementioned
Paola, and since he has some witnesses who are
informed of the rights of said Lodovico, who must
shortly leave this city of Genoa and depart on a
long journey, thus requests that said witnesses, in
eternal memory of the fact and for as long as the
belief in truth does not perish, be received and examined.
First he intends to prove and to attest to the truth
of the fact that was and is that other times in the
past year, during the time in which the witnesses...will say,
Paola Di Negro, commissioned by him Lodovico and by
the aforementioned Cazano or one of them to the
island of Madeira in order to purchase a certain
quantity of sugar, and Lodovico having sent 1,290
ducats therefore, that is to say 1,290 'grosatti' or
their value to said Paola , who was supposed to
purchase 2,400 and more rubbi of sugar, Christopher
Columbus, on the order of said Paola, was sent to
the island of Maderia and here he secured and
purchased the aforementioned amount of sugar.
Witnesses in favor of Lodovico Centurione.
In nomine Domini amen. May all who see the present
public testimonial document know that, having
appeared in the presence of myself, the notary, and
the undersigned witness, summoned and requested
for the express purpose, Christopher Columbus, citizen
of Genoa, summoned here as a witness, must be
received and examined as such. When asked if he has
to depart soon, he answers: yes, tomorrow morning
for Lisbon. When asked how old he is, he answered
that he was about twenty-seven years of age. (editors translation)
|Sobre a falsidade do documento Assereto|
|F.A. Doria, sobre a falsidade do documento Assereto|
|Christoforo Colombo = Cristobal Colon?|
RE: Colombo estaria em Portugal em 1478!? 30-12-2006, 23:46
Autor: coelho [responder para o fórum]
Meu caro Eduardo Albuquerque,
esse documento, conhecido como "documento Assereto", está transcrito (em versão inglesa) no texto de P.E. Taviani que oportunamente transcrevi no tópico que abri sob o título "Cristovão Colombo em Rui de Pina".
Está na seguinte mensagem:
Para os que gostam de duvidar da autenticidade do documento Assereto, transcrevo em seguida a continuação do texto de Taviani, onde outras evidências importantes são recolhidas.
In light of the two acts cited, the tendency to compare, or worse, to confuse or replace the true "Genoese" Columbus family with other similarly named Ligurian, Lombard, Italian or foreign families collapses, as does the main argument of the dilettantes who oppose the Genoese documentation and try to maintain that there was indeed a Genoese Christopher Columbus, woolen-weaver, but who was not the discoverer of America. In addition to the two documents cited, there are others that confirm the identification of the Genoese Christopher Columbus, son of Domenico, with the admiral of Spain. An act dated 11 October 1496 says:
Giovanni Colombo of Quinto, Matteo Colombo and
Amighetto Colombo, brothers of the late Antonio, in
full understanding and knowledge that said Giovanni
must go to Spain to see M. Christopher Columbus,
Admiral of the King of Spain, and that any expenses
that said Giovanni must make in order to see said M.
Christopher must be paid by all three of the
aforementioned brothers, each one to pay a third...and
to this they hereby agree. (editor's translation)
In a fourth notarial act, drawn in Savona on 8 April 1500, Sebastiano Cuneo, heir by half to his father Corrado, requested that Christopher and Giacomo (called Diego), the sons and heirs of Domenico Colombo, be summoned to court and sentenced to pay the price for two lands located in Legine. This document confirms Christoforo and Diego's absence from the Republic of Genoa with these exact words: “dicti conventi sunt absentes ultra Pisas et Niciam” [the summoned parties are absent and beyond Pisa and Nice] (editor's translation).
A fifth notarial act, drawn in Savona on 26 January 1501, is more explicit. A group of Genoese citizens, under oath,
said and say, together and separately and in every more
valid manner and guise, that the Christopher,
Bartholomew and Giacomo Colombo, sons and heirs of the
aforementioned Domenico, their father, have for a long
time been absent from the city and the jurisdiction of
Savona, as well as Pisa and Nice in Provence, and that
they reside in the area of Spain, as was and is well
known. (editor's translation)
Finally, there is a very important sixth document from the notary of Bartholomeo Oddino, drawn in Savona on 30 March 1515. With this notarial act, Leon Pancaldo, the well-known Savonese who would become one of the pilots for Magellan's voyage, sends his own father-in-law in his place as procurator for Diego Colon, son of Admiral Cristobal Colon. The document demonstrates how the ties, in part economic, of the Discoverer's family with Savona survived even his death.
These documents irrefutably demolish the dilettantish claims that would make Cristobal Colon, the discoverer of America, a different person than Cristoforus Columbus, son of Domenico, despite reference to Columbus in more than seventy Genoese and Savonese documents. Regarding the first, second, and third documents, I would emphasize that the authentic originals are conserved and on public display in the Columbian Room of the Archivio di Stato of Genoa. The sixth document can be seen in the original authentic version in the State Archives in Savona.
("Christopher Columbus: Genius of the Sea" by Paolo Emilio Taviani in Italian Journal (1991, Vol. V, No. 5/6, pp. 5-37)
|Documentos no Archivio di Stato di Genova|
|O que se entende por "documento autêntico"|
Colombo no Archivio di Stato di Genova 08-01-2007, 11:36
Colombo no Archivio di Stato di Genova 08-01-2007, 14:43
Colombo no Archivio di Stato di Genova 08-01-2007, 15:38
|Sobre o grande número de documentos|
Crítica virulenta! ... e outras. 17-02-2007, 12:09
Significativo, do ponto de vista da quantidade, mas significativo também por dar
testemunho de uma realidade que afronta a nossa natural tendência para
transportarmos conceitos que nos são familiares para sociedades que o não são.
dar-lhe um exemplo de chocante desfasamento entre os conceitos correntes e a
realidade de outros tempos, tempos que até, no quadro deste tópico, não são
muito longínquos e que, geograficamente, mais próximos de nós (de mim) não
primeiros tempos do regime liberal, o Legitimismo português contou apenas com um
órgão de imprensa, “A Nação”, com sede em Lisboa. Em finais da década de 1840,
os portuenses dessa persuasão fundaram um jornal, “A Pátria”, que não sobreviveu
mais do que alguns meses, para depois reaparecer, não sem algumas vicissitudes,
melhor estruturado e sob o título de “O Portugal”. O directório político do
Legitimismo portuense incluía, como imagina, os nomes sonantes da aristocracia
local, Pintos de Sousa Balsemão, Rangéis Pamplona, Cirnes, etc.
factual, também, que na cidade residia um sapateiro desse nome.
director do jornal era sapateiro.
que o homem dispunha, talvez, de extraordinários dotes literários que a nobreza
portuense decidiu aproveitar. Novamente a presunção não colhe. Os escassos
textos que produziu, motivaram, na restante imprensa, todo o tipo de graçolas,
incluindo, sem surpresa, as inevitáveis referências ao tira-pé e à sovela.
um sapateiro, pouco mais que analfabeto, provadamente incapaz de redigir um
artigo de oposição sem causar maior desgaste à Gramática do que ao Governo, é
que seria o director do órgão nortenho do partido da aristocracia?
Paradoxalmente, a resposta é positiva.
Não conheço as especiais circunstâncias que poderiam explicar este pequeno mistério, mas penso que a designação “sapateiro” qualificaria um agente de uma actividade que não corresponde ao modestíssimo artesanato ainda sobrevivente, e não me parece impossível que se encontrem dezenas de actos notariais, assinados por este José Ferreira da Silva.
Na época construíam-se fortalezas, portos, pontes, canais, palácios, obras que movimentavam enormes capitais, mas não se encontram, nos almanaques, “industriais da construção civil”, nem “empreiteiros de Obras Públicas”, surgindo, por vezes, a designação de pedreiro, em textos que apontam para uma actividade equivalente à dos aparatosos ornamentos da nossa sociedade que entre-aspas refiro.
sobre a antiga indústria genovesa dos lanifícios, a não ser que os nossos muito
amados “jeans” de lá houveram nome, em mais recentes tempos, reproduzindo sob
uma enganadora ortografia o nome inglês da cidade. Sei, contudo, que na Valónia,
devido às especiais qualidades das águas, se lavou e cardou, durante séculos,
parte substancial da lã que a Escócia e a Inglaterra produziam. A cardagem da lã
de origem britânica era uma actividade industrial, estreitamente ligada à
navegação e ao comércio internacional.
Ultima actualização: 18 de Janeiro de 2007